This page was originally authored by Christina Hogan (March 2008)
What is Pedagogy?
Pedagogy is the art and the science of the reciprocal relationship of teaching and learning. It cultivates methods or styles of teaching that improve or reinforce learning. It is often debated whether informal pedagogies- such as a critical action pedagogy- can serve the same purpose as a formal pedagogy like that of Jean Piaget; widely applicable, criticized, and relevant.
A process that involves educating or breaking down information into comprehensible sections for the learner. Teaching guides learning through activities and instruction with the goal that the learner will commit the knowledge to memory and be able to apply it when needed. The teacher’s role is to negotiate learners’engagement with possible meanings (Edwards, 2001).
A process that involves widely accumulating knowledge, committing it to memory, and being able to apply what is learnt to various situations. Learning questions teaching, yet is able to ask for help (Wood & Wood, 1999).
Although pedagogies vary in practice, it is important to note that pedagogies can be conceptualized in written theories, projects, media, or diagrams. Below is an example of a basic Pedagogical Process with furthering explanation from the University of Tasmania (2008).
1. Establish rapport as the basis of working relationships:
- establish trust, develop shared overall purposes and distribution of responsibilities as a basis for ongoing negotiation of:
-control -affection -and inclusion
2. Choose a learning focus
- achieve an agreed specific purpose for the efforts to follow
- address several dimensions of learning: hopes, needs, interests, benefits.
3. Check on prior learning:
- check on hopes, needs, knowledge and experience
- establish a sound basis and starting point for new learning
- establish the zone of proximal development (ZPD) ...more
- make existing knowledge and skills more readily available
- experience provides a basis for future learning and for independent checking thinking against reality
- saves on rework
4. Design learning task and make provision
- make purposes (hopes and expectations) and policies explicit
- specify activities and schedules ...
- include means of knowing about progress and achievement
- organise and assign requirements (resources, permissions & responsibilities...)
5. Undertake Learning Task (Do it !!)
- teacher and/or student provide scaffolding for the learning activity
- learners act and acquire, process and (re)present information
- (#) monitor progress with the task and activities
- teachers mediate students' undertaking the learning task
6. Check on learning: (*) Assessment and evaluation
- reflect on activities, processes, products, experience and learning:
- knowledge & skills acquired
- effectiveness of learning processes used
- self as learner (insights)
7. Explore transference of learning
Due to the diversity of pedagogies, anticipated outcomes vary. Listed below are a few examples of a pedagogy's capacity:
- Lead “to full and equitable social participation” (New London Group, 1).
- “foster transformational thought on part of both students and teachers”- authentic extensions to real world” (Scardamalia and Bereiter, 266).
- Learning is facilitated via relevant pedagogy when:
1. Learners are engaged in solving real-world problems, 2. Existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge, 3. New knowledge is demonstrated to the learner, 4. New knowledge is applied, 5. New knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world. (Mashayekh & Bazargan, 2008).
Pedagogical E- Learning
E- Learning, a newer field in pedagogy, affords many open doors and possibilities for learning instances. The 510 Design Wiki deals with three in particular:
o https://www.vista.ubc.ca:443/webct/urw/lc5116011.tp0/cobaltMainFrame.dowebct Effective Web Design for a Teenage Audience]
In hopes of differentiating E- Learning with a traditional classroom setting, below is table outlining some of the attributes of both Traditional Classroom Teaching and Web- Based Learning. I would argue the prior should be named “Traditional Classroom Learning” in hopes of equating the two concepts on a level playing field.
(Stigmar & Körnefors, 2005).
Edwards, A. (2001). Researching pedagogy: a sociocultural agenday. Pedagogy, Culture & Society. 9:2, 161- 186.
Mashayekh, F. & Bazargan, A. (2008). Pedagogy (science and art of teaching for learning) for lifelong learning. Pedagogy:ir.learning environment, learning performance, and lifelong learning. Retrieved February 25th, 2008 from http://www.pedagogy.ir/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=44&Itemid=101
New London Group. (1996) A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review. 66 (1), 60- 92.
Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer support for knowledge- building communities. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3(3), 265- 283.
Stigmar, M., & Körnefors, R. (2005). Interplay between pedagogy and media technology when planning e- learning. European Journal of Open, Distance, and E- Learning. Retrieved February 18th, 2008 from http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2005/Stigmar.htm
University of Tasmania. Children, Online Learning, and Authentic Teaching Skills in Primary Education. Retrieved February 20th, 2008 from http://www.educ.utas.edu.au/users/ilwebb/Research/index.htm
Wood, H. & Wood, D. (1999) Help-seeking, Learning and Contingent Tutoring, Computers and Education, 33, pp. 153-169.